h88和记体育网址

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        h88和记体育网址

        发布时间:2020-03-30 09:11:21 文章来源:飞华健康网 阅读次数:929

          h88和记体育网址ByHanJun,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncilResearchReportNo210,2012(Total4212)alCongressoftheCommunistPartyofChina,Chinahasmaderemarkableprogressinissuesrelatingtoagriculture,soverallagriculturalproductivityhasincreasedsubstantially,farmerslivingstandardshavebeensignificantlyraised,importantheadwayhasbeenmadeinmodernizingagricultureandbuildingsocialistnewruralareas,andthebalancebetweenvelopmentwasatitsbest,,achievementsrelatingtoagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersaremainlydemonstratedinthefollowingfiveaspects:,Chinasgrainoutputhasincreasedcontinuouslyfor9years,,,,oil,sugar,meat,eggsandmilkhavemadeanewbreakthrough,aincomeDuetothecombinedeffectofvariousfactors,,theaverageannualgrowthhasexceeded8%.Farmersincomestructureexperiencedremarkablechanges,withthesourcesofincomegrpercapitanetincomeincreasedfrom36%in2005to41%in2010;between2005and2010,theaveragecontributionofwageincometofarmers%.Ruralmigrantworkerscontinuouswageincoincomegrowthandimprovementinruralmarketcirculation,andunderthenationalpolicytospurruralconsumption,ruralconsumptiondemandrosesignificantly,andfarmers,thetwoexemptionsandonesubsidypolicy(liesfrompayingtuitionandmiscellaneousfees,andtoprovidelivingsubsidiesforboarders)concerningruralcompulsoryeducationhasbeenfullyimplement,thethreesystems,namelythenewruralcooperativemedicalsystempilotedin2003,theminimumsubsistenceallowancessystemfullyestablishedin2007andthenewruralpensionschemepilotedin2009,realizedfullcoveragein2012;othersocialsecurityschemessuchasruralfiveguarantees(,clothing,housing,medicalcareandburialexpensesforold,weak,orphaned,widowedordisabledruralresidentswhoareunabletoworkandhavenofamilysupport.)alsorapidlydevelopedandadvanced;withtheimplementationofgovernmentresponsibilityinruralresidentssocialsecurity,wishesoverthepastthousandsofyears,,beingprovidedforatoldage,beingproperlytreatedwhenill,andbeingassistedwhileindifficultcircumstances,,notableprogressismadeinconstructionofwater,electricity,roads,,benefitingfarmers,andenrichingruralareasFirstly,inordertoguaranteefoodmarketsuppliesandsecuregraingrowersbenefits,theStatehasi,inresponsetothepricedecreaseanddifficultsaleofcertainagriculturalproducts,temporaryprocurementandstoragemeasureshavebeentakenforcorn,soybean,,,the,subsidycategorieshaveextendedtopaddyrice,wheat,corn,rape,cotton,potatoes,peanuts,highlandbarley,pigs,,subsidiesforgrowingimprovedvarietiesofpaddyrice,wheat,,inordertoaccelerateagriculturalmechanization,subsidiesforpurchaseofagriculturalmachineryandtoolswereestablished,farmerswhopurchasedadvancedagriculturalmachineryandtoolswouldbegrantedsubsidies,andcategoriesofsubsidizedagriculturalmachineryandtoolskeptincreasing,,thecentralgovernmeofagriculturalcapitalgoodssuchasfertilizeranddiesel,in2006,thecentralgovernmentofChina,,,whichplayedasignificantroleinmobilizingfarmersinitiativetogrowgrainsandinpromotingcontinualannualincreaseingrainproductionandfarmersincome,,fromthepilotmeasuresmadein2000tooverallimplementationin2003andthentothecompleteabolishmentofagriculturaltaxin2006,ittook6yearsfortheagriculturaltaxreformtoterminatethe2600-year-oldpracticeofpayinggraintaxtothegovernment.Concomitantreformsoftownandtownshipgovernmentbodies,ruralcompulsoryeducation,countyandtownshipfinancialmanagementsystem,,ruraldebtdissolution,,in2004,gra,thereformintenureofcollectiveforestsmademajorbreakthroughs,andthereformgoalsofclearlydefiningthepropertyrightsan,ovincialgovernments,thefirststageofmanagementsystemreformwentthroughsuccessfullyforruralcreditcooperatives,nomicsectors,includingfarming,forestry,livestockhusbandry,side-occupation,fishery,theirrelatedproductions,processingandcommercializationactivities,,,significantprogresswasmadeinprotectingruralmigrantworkers,majorlawsandregulations,includingGuidelinesoftheStateCouncilonSolvingMigrantWorkersProblems,EmploymentPromotionLawofthePeoplesRepublicofChina,LaborContractLaw,SocialInsuranceLaw,LaborDisputesMediationandArbitrationLawandsoon,havebeensuccessivelypromulgated,andamendmentshavebeenmadetoRegulationsonWork-relatedInjuryInsurance,sothataproperlegalframeworkwasformedtoaddressruralmigrantworkersd,andmigrantworkersaccesstovocationalskilltraining,employmentguidance,socialsecurity,andsuchservicesaseducationoftheirchildren,familyplanning,diseasepreventionandsoonhavebeensignificantlyimproved.Intermsoflaborcost,%ofprivateentrepreneursthinkthatlaborcosthasrisenatpresent,,%ofprivateentrepreneursregardpresentmaterialpurchasepricesasrising,isesSince2011,theretrenchmentofthemoneta%ofprivateenterprisesareshortofcirculatingfunds,%%,privateenterprisesinnortheastandcentralChina,smallandmedium-sizedprivateenterprises,thoseintherealestateindustry,accommodationandcateringindustriesandinthemanufacturingin,privateenterprises,especiallysmallandmedium-sizedones,accesstobankloans,%ofprivateentrepreneursthinkitfairlydifficultormuchdifficulttohaveaccesstotheloans,%%,"payingextracosts,apartfromregulatedinterestrates,relatedtobankloans"hasbeendesignedinthesurve%ofprivateentrepreneurssaidtheyhadpaidalotormuch,%ofthemsaidtheyhadpaidnormalsums,33%ofthemsaidtheyhadpaidsome,%,,qu,"theissueofwhetheritiseasyordifficultforprivateenterprisestoraisenongovernmentalfunds"%ofprivateentrepreneursthinkitquitedifficultorcomparativelydifficulttoraisenongovernmentalfunds,%%,%ofprivateentrepreneursthinkthetaxburdenisveryheavyorcomparativelyheavy,%%,beingmuch"theproportionofcharges,fund-raisingandleviesintheenterprisessalesrevenuepaidbytheenterpriseinayeartogovernmentsatalllevelsapartfromState-regulatedcosts"hasalsobeendesignedforth%oftheprivateenterpriseschose"0%",%ofthemchose"0~%",40%ofthemchose"%~1%",%ofthemchose"1%~5%"and4%ofthemchose"morethan5%".Andtheproportionoftheprivateenterpriseswhichchose"1%~5%"or"morethan5%"th,aboutthepredictionofemploymentstraitsinthenextyear,%ofprivateentrepreneursthinkitfairlydifficulttorecruitworkers,%ofthemregarditasalittlebitdifficult,%%,%ofprivateenterprisesinwestChinathinkitfairlydifficulttorecruitworkers,%ofprivateenterprisesincentralChinawhererur,thenumberofsmallandmedium-sizedprivateenterprisesconsideringrecruitmentfa"escalatingexpectationsofjobchoosingamongmigrantworkersofyoungergeneration"and"excessivelyfastriseincommoditypricesheighteningthecostoflivingofjobseekersandloweringprospectiveearnings",whicharetoptwochoicesgivenbyprivateentrepreneurs,%%respectively,"shortageoftotallaborsupply"(%),"lowwageandlackofcompetitiveness"(%),"demandingjobskills"(%),"insufficientemploymentchannels"(%),"lossofemployees"(%)and"unattractivebrandsandbusinessscale"(21%). 

          ByChenDaofu,ResearchTeamon"DeepingtheReformofRuralCreditCooperatives",ResearchInstituteofFinanceofDRCResearchReportNo151,elopmentofRuralCreditCooperativesDespitethereformsandchangeofcompetentauthorities,thepolicyandcom,eventheone-of-the-kindinsomeregions,theruralcredit"givingpolicysupporttoagriculture,facilitatinglocaldevelopment,guardingagainstrisksthroughsupervisionandearningprofitontheirown",theruralcreditcooperativesfindsitselfinadilemmaofattendingtosustainablebusinrcialization,theruralcreditcooperativesarealsofacingthequestionofhowtosetupthesustainablebusinessdevelopmentmodelthroughtransformationsoastoservetheever-growing"agriculture,ruralareasandfarmers"aswellasmicroandsmallenterprises(MSEs).sdevelo"agriculture,ruralareasandfarmers"andmicroandsmallenterprisesare"agriculture,ruralareasandfarmers",thedevelopmentoftheindustrialeconomyandthewitheringofthesectorrelatedto"agriculture,ruralareasandfarmers"berofpeopleengagedinagriculture,"emptyvillages",someagriculture-basedenterpriseshavebeguntodeve,greatchangeshave,,theunse,,efoundthemselvesnotinapositiontoadapttotheneedfordiversifiedeconomicdevelopmentinruralareasandthatthecounty-levelcorporatejointcooperativesareunabletoadapttothechangeinruralcapitalneedsforlackofcapitalfundandfundcapacity(loanratioforeachsinglecustomerisrestricted)andduetorelativelylowpersonnelquality(productdevelopmentabilityislimited).Intermsofthefeaturesofthefinancialperformance,thereisaworldofdifferenceinbusinessmodelandriskmanagementapplicabletoservicesofferedtoindustryandurbanlargeandmedium-sizedenterprisesaswellastothesectorof"agriculture,ruralareasandfarmers"andmicroandsmallenterprises,andtherequirementsformanagementstructure(governancemechanism)dstandardized,witheachamountbeinghandsome,therefore,thecooperativespaymoreattentiontopledge,"agriculture,ruralareasandfarmers"andtomicroandsmallenterprisesarerelativelysimpleandlessstandardized,witheachamountbeingsmall,therefore,thecooperativespaymoreattentiontoactualservicesandcashflowsandlayemphasisonlawoflargenumbers,informationt,theformercallsforcompletesetupofsectionsandstressesstandardizationandinteraction,whilethelatteremphasizesontheflexibilityontheprem,toservewhichevertypesofrealeconomies,theeconomiesofscaleandeconomiesofscopedoexistinthefinancialsectoranddsize,ematicrisksforasingl,differentservicegroupswillleadtodifferentbusinessoperationandriskmanagementmodelsforfinancialinstitutions,yetthesustainableoperationsaleoperationarenotboundtohappenandshouldnotcompletelygoagainsttheprovisionofeffectivefinancialservicesforspecificgroups,w,changeofruralcreditcooperativesservicetargetshasposedaedoffastheywereNamely,whetherthecooperativesshouldbeallowedtoexpandtheirdistrictsofoperationtodiversifyandwidentheirbusinessscaleandchangetheirmanagementmodel,itisthechangeoftheeconomicenvironmentthathasposedaquestionofpositioningofthecreditcooperatives,thatis,whetherthecooperativesshouldchangewiththegrowthoftheservicetargetsorjustconcentrateont,thereisalsoaquestionofwhatmethodsaremoreeffectiveintheendtosatisfythefinancialservicedemandarisingfrom"agriculture,ruralareasandfarmers"andmicroandsmallenethebusinessdevelopmentmodelsthatconformtotheeconomicdevelopmentandlawoffinancialoperationassumedinvariouslocalitiesandmaintaincommercialsustainability.Beingofvitalsignificance,improvingpeopleslivelihoodis,especiallyaftertheconventionofthe16thCPCNationalCongress,Chinahasmademarkedprogressinthefieldsofimprovingpeopleslivelihood,whereasisfacinganumberofchallengesintheneweraincludingincompletesocialpolicysystem,,weshouldfurtherhighlightprioritiesandimprovethedevelopmentstrategyforpeoplesLivelihoodRequiresComprehensiveSocialEfforovingpeopleslivelihoodTheimprovementofpeopleslivelihoodrequiresthejointeffortsofindividuals,households,ocialprogress,,asthebasicunitofsocialactivities,playanirreplaceableroleinprovidingeconom,astheycanpromoteorganizedandstandardizedinterestexpression,coordinatetheinterestrelationshipbetweendifferentsocialgroupsinamoreefficientway,ialneedsatdifferentlevelsandfacilitatemutualhelp,nomicordera,wemustclarifyresponsibilitiesrespectivelyheldbytheindividuals,thehouseholds,andthestate,aswellasthosejointlysharedbytheindividuals,householdsandstateandthoseentrustedtosocialorganizations,inlightoftheeconomicdevelopment,publicneedsandfeaturesindifferentcasesandthegovernmentinetheattributesofallservicesasproducts,my,dailyneedsforclothing,food,housingandtransportationaremetbytheincomeoftheindividualandthehousehold;theold-aged,disabledandunemployedpeopleaswellasothervulnerablesocialgroupsshoulddependmoreonsocialinsuranceandsocialreliefsystem,,theassistanceissubjecttoastrictstandardalinsurance,overnment;andlifenecessitieslikepublictransportation,waterande,individualandhouseholds,socialorganizationsaremobilizedinmanycountrie,Chinahasmadegreatprogressinpolicymaking,butisstillbotheredbyunclearresponsibilities,,weshouldcarefullyanalyzeinternationalexperienceedfordifferentissuesconcerningpeopleslivelihood;besides,astandardadjustmenuldfocusonsystemconstructionandimprovementTheimprovementofpeopleslivelihoodrequiresthejointeffortsofthewholesociety,butthegovernmentplaysanundoubtedlycrucialandkeyrole,astheimprovementoftheeconomicandsocialorder,incomedistributionandcoordinationofinterestrelationshipsmustegovernmentresponsibilitiesforguaranteeingandimprovingpeopleslivelihoodisgenerallyclear,despitetheinfluenceofmanyfactorsandbehavior:first,,providetoeveryonewithopportunitiesasfairandfreeaspossible,encouragecompetition,laborandinnovation;second,,consideringthenaturaldifferenceincapabilityandendowmentofindividualsocialmembers,themarketrisksandacuteeffectsofexc,enhancingemployment,andintensifyingeffortsonbuildingafairmarkettopromoteequalprimaryincomedistribution,weshouldadjusttheresultoftheprimarydistributionbyusingpolicytoolssuchastax,socialsecurityandpublicservices;third,lyaddressthemarketmalfunctions,butalsoeffectivelyfulfillthefunctionofsecondaryincomedistribution,providefairerdevelopmentopportunitiesforvarioussocialmembers,significantlyenhancetheoverallwelfareandcreativityandpromotelastingandstableeconomicgrowth;andfourth,,weshouldbalancevariousinterestappealsandestablishandkeepimprovingandimplementingstrictlythelegalsystemonthatbasisandasperthedemocraticprinciple,safeguardpeople,weshouldestablishsmoothinterestexpressionchannelsandcoordinationanddialoguemechanismsthroughsystemconstruction,andachievewin-winresultsthroughmutualsupervisionandbalancebyindividuals,eandImprovementWithaviewtothesignificanceofpeopleslivelihoodtoeconomicandsocialdevelopmentandthelastingpeaceandstabilityofacountryandinlightofthepresentandfuturechallenges,weshouldobservetherequirementoftheCPCCentralCommitteetobuildaharmonioussocialistsocietyandreformguidelinesproposedinmanyimportantCPCconferences,reviewandsummarizedomesticandforeignexperience,,fulfillgovernmentresponsibilityandpromotesocialparticipationundertheprincipleoffairnessandharmonyandonthebasisofsystemconstructionandimprovement;andhighlightprotectionofpeopleseconomicandsocialrights,facilitateequalityandjusticebyaddressingpeoplesmajorconcernswhilefurtherimprovingpeoplesmaterialandculturallifeandallowingthemtobetterenjoythebenefitsofreformanddevelopment,soastolayasolidfoundationforlastingstabilityandharmony.h88和记体育网址 


          ---Ananalysisofeconomicsituationin2013andprospectsfor2014LiuShijin,YubinChenChangshengThisyearmarksthebeginningoftheoverallimplementationofthespiritofthe18thNationalCongressoftheCommunistPartyofChinaandtheconjuncturetoacceleratedevelop,theChinesegovernmentadoptedaseriesofregulatorymeasures,whicheffectivelyguidedthemarketexpectationandledeconomicoperationtoturnaroun,restrictedbystructuralproblems,thefoundationofcurrenteconomicrecoveryremainsunstable,%.Lookinginto2014,asinternationaleconomystabilizesingeneralanddomesticdemandgrowthfacesdownwardpressure,theeconomicgrowthispredictedtobeslightlyhigherthan7%.Whileimplementingprudentfiscalandmonetarypolicies,Chinashouldadheretotheguidelineofseekingimprovementinstabilityandpromotingprogressthroughstability,strivetoreleasethedividendofreformandstimulatemarketenergyandsocialcreativity,soastosubstantiallyreducecorporateoperationalcostandpromoteeeExtrusiveSinceJuly,economicoperati,thoughgrowthremainedlow,falsetradingconsiderablyreducedcomparedwiththebegineffectonupper-streamindustriesincludingheavyindustrybyover20%,scopeexpansionofVATforbusinesstax,administrationstreamliningpowerdelegationtolowerlevels,graduallyrelievedrestrictionforrailwayinvestmentaswellasthesettingupof,,,ture,growthofheavyindustriessuchascoalferrousmetalmininganddressing,steel,,realestateinvestmentdistinctlyfellbackinAugust,ecreased,andcoalinventorydaysofmajorplantsincreasedfromaround15daysinAugustto19days,,cokingcoal,coke,,,therebounddidn,economicrecoveryisfirstrefl,,,%onayear-on-yearbasis,;meanwhile,therheroleofmaintainingproductionandabsorbinginventory,butdidn’tcausethevirtuouscycleofincreasedinventory,,,,%onayear-on-yearbasis,%.Amongthem,newprofitsofpowerandheating,petroleumrefiningandcoking,,%(1),anditwasexpectedthatM2shareinGDPattheendofAugustwouldexceed200%,problemssuchasthemismatchofallocationofresourcesandtermsinthefinancialsystemwereextrusive,andcapitalchainkeptextendinuchasrealestateandinfrastructure,andliabilitiesofindustrialenterpidexpansionofmonetarycredit,furthertwistedfinancialresourceallocation,pushedmarketinterestrateup,andsqueezedoutcapitaldemandofsmallandmediumenterprises.(2),changeswiththerealestatemarketinfirst-tierandsecond-tiercitiesaswellasthird-tierandfourth-tiercitiestendedtobeconsi,aftertherapiddevelopmentinrecentyears,ngandlandandstartedtoseesupplyexceeddemandduetocon,inordertopromotemunicipalconstructionandmaintainfiscalbalance,localgovernmentscontinuedtosupplyland,causingh,firsndpublicservices,,theshareoflandforhousinginthesecitieswaslowandbothlandandhousingwereinshortsupply,whichintensifiedthepressureofpricerisingandcausedthebubbletofurtherexpand.ByShiYaodong,ResearchTeamon"ChinasMediumandLongTermEnergyDevelopmentStrategy"ofDRCResearchReport,,2013(Total4439)Overthepast30years,Chinasenergysystemhaswitnessedamarkedprogressandisnowex,therapiddevelopmentofChinasenergysystemhasplayedavitalsupporti,ChinaspercapitaG,Chinasenergysystemisfacingthreechallenges,namely,supplysecurity,,,hecommoditymarket,policymakersneedtoestablishacomprehensiveenergypolicysystemframeworktargetingatfacilitatingChinasenergysystemdevelopmentandtransformationsoastoguideenergysystemtransformationinamoresecure,,Chinawillenterthelatestageofindustrializationasawholeandindustrialstructureadjustmentandupgradingandin-depthurbanization,greenandeconomicdevelopmentpatternwillconstitutebasicstartingpointsandmajorconstraintsonChinasmodernenergysystem,howtosupplystable,safe,cleanandefficientenergytosustainara,Chinasenergyindustrywillfacemanyn,thethirdindustrializationbasedondeepintegrationofrenewableenergyandintelligentcommunicationstechnologywillsignificantlychangethedrivingforcesforeconomicgrowthinChi,digitalmanufacturingandmanufacturingindustryinsourcingbasedonanewroundoftechnologicalrevolutionmightre-boostindustrialenergyconsumption;thelarge-scaledevelopmentandwidespreaduseofmassivebudgetnon-conventionalnaturalgasintheUnitedStatesandothercountrieswilltriggeroffamarkedchangeinglobalenergysupplyandconsumptltilateralcarbonreductionmechanism,Chinawillbeputundergreaterpressuretoreducecarbonemissionsastheworld,senergysystemisboundtomakeacomprehensiveandprofoundstrategictransformationinasecure,,.SinceReformandOpeningup,Chinasrapideconomicgrowth,furthermarket-orientedreformandchangesinenergysupplyanddemand,Chin,China,Chinasenergypoliciesfocusedonaddressin,issuesrelatedtomixedupfunctionsb,policiesinthefirsttenyearsaimedatgivingfullplaytopoliciesondemandsidemanagement,,theconstantadjustmentandimprovementofChinasenergypoliciesoverthepast30yearsplayedavi,China:From1978tothelate1980s(1)MacrobackgroundDuringthefirsttenyearsinthe1980s,Chinainitiateditseconomicsystemreform,inducingmarkedchangesineconomicmanagementsystemsandmarketoperationmechanisms,includingreformofinvestmentsystem,pilotpricerefor,therewasatende,localstate-ownedenterprisesandtownshipandvillageenterprisesemergedinmultitude,butontheotherhandsectoralcorporatiotablemacroeconomicoperation.(2)EnergypoliciesEnergypolicieswereaimedataddressin,theChinesegovernmentimplementedthedualcoalpricesystem,pushedthroughelectricitypricereform,encouragedlocalgovernmentstooperatesmallcoalmines,raisefundsforpowergenerationandattractforeigninve,,theMinistryofEnergywasfounded,theMinistryofCoalIndustry,theMinistryofPetroleumIndustryandtheMinistryofNuclearIndustrywerefirstdissolvedandthenrestoredandfollowedbytheestablishmentofChinaNationalCoalCorporation,ChinaNationalPetroleumCorporationandChinaNationalNuclearCorporation.(3)OverallevaluationTheeffortsmadebytheChinesegovernmentinrelaxingcontrolovermarketaccessinthefieldsofcoalandelectricityalleviatedtheshortageofenergysupplytoacertainextent;theadjustmenttoenergypoliciesmainlycenteredaroundpowercentralizationanddecentralizationbetweenlocalgovernmentsandcentra,reformofrigidenergypricingmechanismbroadenedexperiencefordeepeningreformofenergyprice,,therewerefundamentalcontradictionstoberesolved,includinginadequateenergypricereform,imperfectcriteriaformarketassess,absenceofpoliciesonenergyefficiency,imperfectpoliciesonenergyresources,fi:1990s(1)MacrobackgroundTheChinesegovernmentsetthetargetsofmarketeconomysystemandmarket-orientedreformenteredasubstantivestage;separationofgovernmentadministrationfromenterprisemanagementbecamethefocusofsystemreforminvariousfields,pricereformwasgraduallydeepenedandpricemechanismreinforceditsfundamentalroleinoptimizingresourceallocation;state-ownedenterprisescompletedstrategicregroupingandstate-ownedenterprisescoexistedwithforeign-fundedenterprisesandprivateenterprises;awaveofinternationalindustrialtransfersweptovertheeasterncoastalareasandconsequentlyitstimulatedandincreasedlocaldemandonenergyresources.(2)EnergypolicesEffortsfocusedontacklingissuesrelatedtomixedfunc,theChinesegovernmentpushedthroughreformofseparationofgovernmentadministrationfromenterprisemanagementintheindustriesofcoal,electricityandoilandenergyenterprisesnolongershoulderedthefunctionforadministrativemanagement;energymanagementsystemlaunchedinitialreformandtheoilindustrycompletedlarge-scalerestructuring;energymarketreformwasdeepenedandbothenergyresourceexploitationandenergyconservationwereemphasized;theChinesegovernmentacceleratedenergylegalstytemconstructionandenactedtheCoalIndustryLawofthePeoplesRepublicofChinaandtheElectricPowerLawofthePeoplesRepublicofChinain1996andtheEnergyConservationLawofthePeoplesRepublicofChinain1997;andnewenergydevelopmententeredaninitialstage.(3)OverallevaluationChinasenergypoliciesshiftedthefocusfromsingletargetoffocusingonincreasingenergysupplycapacitytodiversifiedtargetsofintroducingmarketcompetitionmechanism,optimizingehedevelopmentoftheenergyindustryandlegalandstandardized,Chinasenergypolicieswerestillinvolvedinadministrativeinterventioninenergyinvestmentandpricesetting;energydemandmanagementpolicies,incentivecompetitionpoliciesandenergytechnologypoliciesrequiredimprovementandtherewasalackofincentivepoliciesforpromotingrenewableenergydevelopment. 

        h88和记体育网址Source:StatisticalbulletinsoftheStateandrelevantprovinces,,whengivingdueconsiderationforeconomicperformanceanddevelopmenttrendsathomeandabroad,actinarightwaytoproperlyhandletherelationshipsbetweentheshort-termgrowthandtheimprovementofthelong-termcompetitivepowerandamelioratethemechanismfrces,scaleoflanduse,environmentalprotection,productquality,safetyproduction,sofinnovationsoastobringdownproductioncostandreducepollutionandtofinallyrealizetheindustrialtransformationandupgrading(Gardiar,1994).Weshouldtakeprecautionsagainsttheuseofsubsidiesanddemand-stimulantpoliciesunfavorabletotheenhancementoftheindustrialde,onthepremiseofgivingplaytotherolesofenterprisesasthemainstay,weshouldconstructsystematicinnovation-incentivepolicies,institutionalenvironmentsandatmospheresofpublicopinion,encouragetheimprovementoftechnicalinnovation,managementinnovation,marketinginnovation,businesspatterninnovationandinstitutionalinnovation,guidelow-endproductionsectorstostepuptechnicaltransformation,efficiencyenhancementortransfertolower-costregions,developmid-andhigh-endlinksandindustriesgeneratinghigheraddedvalue,formreasonabledivisionoflaboramongindustrialchains,properlyhandleeconomicandsocialissuesbroughtaboutbyenterpriseclustersandwithdrawalofbackwardcapacities,breakdownroadblocksandtransfetlyfacingenterprisesincoa,uchexternalfactorsasadjustmentofexchangeratesandreductionofoverseasdemand,widenughtaboutbyenterpriseswithmanagementdifficoductionandbusinessoperationandguidethemtoimprovetheirbusinessmanagementandinnovationIndustrialTransformationandUpgradinginCoastalRegionsofSoutheastChinaInlightofthefieldsurveysinthecoastalregionsofsoutheastChina,itcanbejudgedthatthereexist"threeextrusions",manymanufacrealestatemarketbyleapsandbounds,manyenterprisesnolongermakeinvestmentinvariousindustriesandhaveturned"sidelines"into"majors".Thus,agreatdealofnongovernmentalcapitalhasaggregatedinthefieldofthevirtu,however,isapttocausesthatamong7industries,suchasthemanufacturingindustry,theminingindustry,theconstructionindustry,thefinancialindustry,therealestateindustry,thecommunicationsandtransportationindustry,thewarehousingandpostalservice,thepowerindustryandtheproductionandsupplyofgasandwater,themanufacturingindustrymaintainedamaximumofthereturnofcapitalduring1993~1997,whilethereturnofcapitaloftherealestateindustryandthefi,inparticular,hasmaintainedahighestreturnofcapitalsince2003(Figure1).Thisiswhyquiteanumberofenterprisesandcapitalhavebeenputintothefinancialandtherealestateindustries.

        Source:ReportbyChinaBankingRegulatoryCommission2010andwebsiteofthePeoplehavedivertedtheirpreviouspolicyofofferingmajorcreditsupporttolarge,joint-stockandforeignenterprisestothepracticeoffocusingtheir,bytheendof2010,109commercialbankshadsetupinstitutionsspeciallyforsmall-andmedium-sizedenterprises,andmanybankshavecomeupwithfinancialprodmall-andmedium-siz,ategiclevelforitsboardofdirectorsandtheheadofficeofthebankhasprovidedmajorbackingforcreditservicetosmallandmicro-enterprisesintermsofmanpowerallocation,creditline,,70%~80%oftheincreasedloansin2010wereallspentonsmallandmicro-enterprises;intermsofmanpowerallocation,another600peoplewereassignedforloanservicetosmallandmicro-enterprisesin2010,andanincreaseof2,500peopleorsoinallinthebankingsectorwereassignedforthesaidservice,makingup24%irectfinancingAccordingtostatistics,thenumberofsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesinthecapitalmarketandtheam,,36companieswerelistedatgrowthenterprisesmarket(GEM)forbusinessstartupin2009,117werelistedin2010and47werelistedinthefirstthreemonthsof2011,ystem,14joint-stockcompanieshaveconducteddirectionalcapitalincreasefor15timesbyissuingshare,83enterpriseshavebeenlisted,,bytheendof2010,byissuingsuchdebtfinancinginstrumentsascommercialpaperandSMECN,small-andmedium-sizedenterprisesisgraduallyincreasingBytheendof2010,thenumberofinstitutionsofferingpettyloanshadreached2,614nationwide,upby1,280overtheendofthepreviousyear;,,priseshadreached5,547(Thenumberonlyreached97in2000),,,theamountofsecuredloansprovide,thenumberofprovince-levelcreditre-guaranteeinstitutionsforsmall-andmedium-sizedenterprisesreached14.ByBaShusong,ResearchInstituteofFinanceofDRCResearchReportNo17,2013(Total4266)Recently,withbankfinancialproductsbecomingahotspottopicinChina,,thedefinition,connotationandmeaningoftheshadowbankinggivenbytheinternationalfinancialcirclearecloselylinkedwiththeeconomicandfinancialstructures,differentstagesoffinanciald,managingdirectorofPacificInvestmentManagementCompany(PIMCO),,theinternationalf:ScopingtheIssues,aresearchreportpublishedbyFinancialStabilityBoard(FSB)inApril2011,shadowbankingrefersto"asystemofcreditintermediationthatinvolvesentitiesandactivitiesoutsidetheregularbankingsystem,andraisessystemicriskaswellasregulatoryarbitrageconcerns."Factorsfortheshadowbankingtotriggersystemicrisksmainlyinclude:maturitymismatch,liquiditytransformation,arly,thestructuresoftheshadowbankingarevariedduetothevarietyoffinancialstructures,differentdevelopmentstagesoffinancntermediationsystemconductedthroughriskdiversificationandleverageenlargementcenteredonsecuritizationofmoneymarketfundssuchasinvestmentfundsandinvestmentbanks,whereasshadowbankinginEuropemainlyincludespresentfinancialsystemlikethoseholdingadominantpositionihadowbankingfromdifferentperspectivestocorrespondtothepresentChinesefinancialmarket,whichgenerallyincludesfourscopes:thenarrowestscope,whichmakesshadowbankingtoonlyinvolvebankfinancingbusinessandtrustcompanies;thenarrowscope,whichinvolvesbankfinancingbusinessandsuchnon-bankfinancialinstitutionsastrustcompanies,financecompanies,autofinancingcompanies,financialleasingcompaniesandconsumerfinancecompanies;thewidescope,whichinvolvessuchform-basedbusinessasthenarrowscope,inter-bankbusinessandentrustedloans,aswellassuchnon-bankfinancialinstitutionsasfinancingassurancecompanies,petty-loancompaniesandpawnshopsandsoforth;thewidestscope,ttentionandiscurrentlythemostprevalent,namely,thenon-bankfinancialinstitutionssuchasbankfinanropeandtheUnitedStatesBasedonabove-mentioneddefinitionandfeaturedescription,andinlinewiththeperformanceoftheshadowbankingsystemintheinternationalfinancialcrisis,scopingtheshadowbankingshouldmainlyincludethefollowingthreeaspects:First,whethe,shadowbankingintheUnitedStatesandEurope,suchasthehedgefund,hadnotbeenmonitoredtothefulland,propelledbysuchfinancialinnovationsascounterpurchaseandassetsecuritization,suchinstitutionshadconstantlyexpande,whethershadowbankingischaracterizedbymaturitymismatchandhigh-leverageoperation,,theshadowbankingliabilitiesintheUnitedStatesandEuropewerefocusedonshort-termwholesalefinance,suchastheinter-banklendingandcommercialbills,butinvestmentsweremadeinprotractedandpoorlymobileassetssuchasassetsbackedsecurities,,thebalancesheetsofthemajorUSinvestmentbankshadexpandeddrastically,evenwiththeaverageleveragescoringa40-foldincreaseorsoand,duringthecrisis,theferociousde-,whethershadowbankingisofrelevanceandinfectiousness,,theshadowbankingsystemhadcorrelatedwiththecommercialbankingsystembymeansofbusinesscontactandequityinvestmentinEuropeandtheUnitedStates,spreadingthecrisis-incurredrisksquicklyfromtheshadowbankingsystemtothetrad,althoughthedrivingforcebehindtheemergenceoftheshadowbankingsysteminChinaisbasicallyaimedattheregulatoryarbitrageandisalsocharacterizedbyliquiditytransformationandcreditrisks,andalthoughsomeriskcontrollinksshouldbestrengthened,theshadowbankingsystemhasbeenbroughtundertheregularsupervisionsystemonthewholeandisnottypicallycharacterizedbythehighleverageandthematuritymismatchthatmaytriggersystemicrisksand,meanwhile,thesizeofthesaid,,thebankfinancialproductsfallwithinthestatisticalrequirementsenforcednowbysupervisiondepartments,theperformanceofthefinancialproductsissuedbycommercialbanksshouldbesubmittedtosupervisiondepartmentsatregularintervals,andtheparticularsofthefinancialproductsshouldalsobesubmittedtmmercialBankspromulgatedin2005andtheMeasuresonManagementofSalesofFinancialProductsofCommercialBanksimplustcompanies,includingaccessmanagementandcapitalregulation(MeasuresonManagementofNetCapitalofTrustCompanydemandsthatthetrustcompaniesnetcapital-to-riskcapital-ratioshouldsurpass100%).ConstrainedbysuchrulesandregulationsastheMeasuresonManagementofFinanceCompaniesofEnterpriseGroups,theProvisionalMeasuresontheAssessmentofIndicatorsMonitoringRisksofFinanceCompaniesofEnterpriseGroups,theMeasuresfortheImplementationofAdministrativeApprovalsforNon-BankFinancialInstitutions,theMeasuresonManagementofAutoFinancingCompaniesandthePilotMeasuresonManagementofConsumerFinanceCompanies,thesupervisioncompanies,withreferencetotheregulatoryrequirementsovercommercialbanks,havesetupacompletesetofprud,Chinasshadowbankingsystemindependentlyandrelevantinformationshouldbedisclosedfullytomatcheverysumoffundswithcorrespondingassetsandtoenableeachearningstocovertherisksonthewhole(AccordingtoWinddata,theanticipatedannualrateofreturnonbanks%,%,andwithinthesame6-monthperiod,%%respectively;accordingtoSB,anAmerican-fundedsecuritytrader,onlylessthan10%ofthefinancialproductsyieldaninterestratehigherthan5%).Hence,risksoffinancialproductsshouldbebasicallyclosetothoseofsimilarinvestmentproductsiseway,thetimelimitforover90%oftheassetsisgenerallywithin5years,andthedegreeofm,currentlytrustcompaniesinChinashouldnotoperateonborrowingsandcannotgiveloanstobankseither,,thetrustfundsarebeingoperatedinaseal-offway,,highleverageandmaturitymismatcharenotthefeaturesofthetrustfunds....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.


          ByXiangAnbo,EnterpriseResearchInstituteofDRCResearchReportNo72,sMineralResourcesCharacterizedbyaRichAggregateyetaPer-capitaInadequacyBeingvastinterritory,Chinaisabigproducer,,Chinastot,ataper-capitacalculation,Chinasmineralresourcesonlyaccountfor58%oftheworldaverage,edby"ThreeMajoritiesandOneDifficulty",completecategorieswithunsatisfactorystructureandarelativelyconcentrate,,onlysuchmineralresourceswithtraditionaladvantagesastungsten,stibium,rare-earth,graphiteandmagnesite,seetheirper-capitadepositsexceedingtheworldaverage,whilethedepositsofthestrategicmineralresourcesthatareofvitalimportancetothenationaleconomyandthepeopleslivelihood,suchasiron,manganese,chromium,copper,aluminum,goldandsilver,,copperandaluminum,onlycometo1/6,1/6and1/9oftheworldaverage,,ofthe45sortsofkeymineralresources,onlythesupplyof23sortscanbeguaranteed,whilethesupplyof10sortshastobeguaranteedthroughimportsoveraprotractedperiodoftimeand5sortsdependmainlyonimportsasaresultofscarcity;andby2020,onlythesupplyof6sortscanbeguaranteed,sseveremineralconstraintsarereflectedbymorethan10sortsofmineralresources,suchasironore,bauxite,copperore,uranium,sylvite,nickelandmanganeseore,,copper,aluminum,leadandzincareallconstraintmineralsofChina,andcopperandaluminumrestrainChinasumptionofresourcesChinasindustrializationdriveisaprocessofindustria,Chinasuffersmoreres,ChinaisenteringeousconditionstobeusedbyChinatorealizeitsmechanization,electrization,electronizationandinformatizationsynchronically,relatedstudieshavepredictedthatby2020whenChinainitiallyrealizesitsindustrialization,Chinasper-capitaannualconsumptionofmineralresourceswillpossiblybelo,duetoChinaslargepopulation,,Chinawillstillincreaseitsconsumptionofmineralresource,thecoefficientofelastic,inordertoensureadevelopmentfornext20years,Chinawillneedatleast30billiontonsofironore,rs,thegrowthofdepositsofChinasmajormineralresourceshasbeenslowerthantheincreaseofmineralproducts,andtheincreaseofmineralproductsha,%%in2005,andfellduring2006and2008,yetwentupagaintoanall-timehighof62%in2006(withtheactiveandtimelyadjustmentofthedemandmadebyChineseenterprisesaccordingtopriceupsanddownsasareasonablefactor).IntermsoftheperiodofChinasindustrializationandinviewoftheinternationalexperience,foralongperiodoftime,thecontradictionsbetweenthesupplyanddemandofsomemajorandpillarmineralproductsinChinawillstillcontinuetoaggravate,andtheoverallimportdependencewillincreaseertheforeignresourcurcesofironore,bauxiteandcopperore,ChinamainlydependsonAustralia,Brazil,IndiaandSouthAfricaforironore,onAustralia,IndiaandJamaicaforbauxite,andonChile,Mongolia,candtraderelationswiththesecountriesaswellasitsinvestmentinresourceindustriesofthesecountries.ByHanJun,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)ResearchReportNo1,2012Chinabeganruraltaxreformin2000,,,,designedtofundamentallyrectifyrampanttaxesandadministrativechargesinruralareasandalleviatefarmersburden,promptedpublicfinancetofullycoveragriculture,ruralareasandfarmers,triggeredamajorreformofruralsocialundertakingsandpublicservicesupplymechanisms,becameabreakthroughpointforreformingthedualsystemthathadseparatedurbanandruralareas,andushereders,farmers,allsortsofunreasonablefundraising,levie,unreasonablefundraisings,leviesandadministrativechargeswereregardedbyfarmersas"bottomlesspits"asthesetaxesa,therelativetaxandfeeburdenvariedwidelybeces,farmerswithapercapitaannualnetincomeof500yuanorlessthan1,%%useofexcessivelyhighfarmers,thissystemenabledthegovernmenttoexcessivelycollectruralsurplusfu,thissystemprovidedtoolittlebasicpublicproductsandse,ruralpublicproductsweremainlyprovidedbygrass-rootsgovernmentsandcollectiveorganizationsorbyfarmerswiththeirownraisedfunds,edandthefiscalresour,thegovernmentsbelowtheprovinciallevelcontinuedtocentralizetheirfi,andfinallytotownandtownshipgovernments,burdenbecamea"chronicdisease",viciousincidentsarisingfromfarmersburdenincreasedyearafteryearandexcessivelyheavyfarmersburdenbecameamajorproblemthatadedthetaxsystemthatappliedbothtoagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersandtoindustry,commerce,,eitherdevelopedonesinEuropeandAmericaordevelopingonessuchasIndia,agriculture-relatedtaxesareallscatteredinvarioustaxtypes,whichgiveequal,Chinastaxsystemhadremainedadualpattern:,themainpolicygoalwastorectifyrampant,thepolicyguidanceforruraltaxreformwasguidedby"alleviation,standardizationandstabilization".Inotherwords,alladministrativechargeswereabolishedandconsolidatedintounitaryagriculturaltaxandtherateofagriculturaltaxwasgraduallyloweredsoastoalleviatefarmers,whichcomprisedboththecommodsengagedinagriculture,,ithaddegradedintoafixedlandtax,ormoreaccurately,,therateofagriculturaltaxwassetatnomorethan7%ofthetotallandoutputinanormalyearandtherateofsurchargewassetatnomorethan20%,%,actuallyimplementedinmostplaces,wasundulyhighandbeyondtheenduranceoffarmerswhencomparedwiththeagriculturaltaxinChina%taxpaymentnearlyextortedallsurplusofgra,thedualtaxsystemrespectivelyforurbanandruralareasisaninstitutionalarrangementtoexploitagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersinordertosupportcities,,theseexcessivelyheavyfarmersburdencouldbefundamentallysolvedonlywhenalltaxesexclusivelytargetedonfarmerswereabolished,whenthethousand-year-long"imperialgraintax"wasbroughttoanend,whenfarmersreceivedequaltaxtreatment,,ruraltaxreformsoonenteredintoastageofgraduallyreduche2ndSessionofthe10thNationalPeoplesCongress,heannouncedforthefirsttime,atotalof28provinces,autonomousregionsandprovincial,thestatedidnotimmediatelyintroducepersonalincomet,Chinabasicallyunifiedthetaxstatusofagricultureandfarmerswiththatofotherindustriesandsocialgroups,andfundamentallyremovedtaxsy,,,Chinashouldlessenagriculture-relatedtaxburdenforaconsiderabletimetocomewithintheframeworkofaunifiedurban-ruraltaxsystem.h88和记体育网址 

 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